Weak research and development capabilities
The gap between the technology and product level of China's farming machinery is significantly different from that of developed countries, which is reflected in the following aspects: First, the gap between China's single mechanical technology and foreign hydraulic, pneumatic and mechatronics technologies; The gap between semi-automatic mechanical technology and foreign automatic, remote control and information technology; the third is the gap between China's small and medium-sized, single-function and foreign large-scale, joint and dual-working machinery; Fourth, China's initial replacement of manual work machinery and foreign operations with high quality The gap between the operation and the comfort of operation; the fifth is the gap between China's ordinary machinery manufacturing process equipment and foreign laser cutting, flexible processing and other advanced equipment; Six is â€‹â€‹the gap between almost single steel materials in China and foreign metals, plastics, rubber and special steel.
According to analysis, the main reasons leading to the widening of the gap are:
Insufficient funds and weak research and development capabilities. In the past few years, when the development of agricultural mechanization was at a low tide, the agricultural machinery and academies in some agricultural colleges and universities of science and technology were successively downsized and turned, making fewer and fewer people insist on the position of agricultural machinery research and development, resulting in weak basic research on agricultural machinery application technology. . At the same time, national agricultural machinery research units are difficult to make a difference due to factors such as insufficient funds and brain drain; agricultural machinery enterprises, especially farming machinery enterprises, do not have the ability to develop independently because of their small scale and low profits. As a result, basic and critical technology research has been weakened; forward-looking technology and common technology research have lost their foundation; new products and new technologies have been lagging behind. The lag of the cultivation technology and product development required for new planting techniques and farming methods has directly affected the promotion of new agricultural technologies.
The product has a low level of repeated imitation and serious innovation. The lack of independent innovation capability of the domestic agricultural machinery industry has led to the relative backwardness of the overall R&D and production level of farming machinery. On the one hand, it is difficult for research and development units and production enterprises to fully digest, absorb, and transform imported product technologies to form products with their own intellectual property rights; on the other hand, due to the ineffective protection of intellectual property rights by some enterprises, plagiarism and counterfeiting are serious. The earth has damped the enthusiasm of research and development units and production companies for the research and development of new technologies and new products.
The function is single, and the variety of farming machinery is still not complete. Although the combined operation of ploughing and ploughing, the combined operation of planting and fertilization, and the double operation of farming can improve work efficiency and reduce operating costs, at present, such farming machines produced by domestic agricultural machinery enterprises lack or have a small number of species, which is difficult to meet agriculture. The need for planting structural adjustment. At the same time, the current seedling transplanting machinery, cultivating and weeding machinery, excavation harvesting machinery for tubers, and soft straw field processing machinery required for cotton production are also seriously lacking.
Faced with this situation, it is urgent for the government departments to start from the system and mechanism to improve the innovation capacity of agricultural machinery and increase investment. At the same time, it is also necessary for industries and enterprises to strengthen their own construction and increase capital investment and development.
Duplex work will become mainstream
Gradually advancing along the road from scratch to small to medium and large, this is the general rule of the development of the agricultural machinery industry, and China is no exception, but the process is relatively slow. With the establishment and improvement of the social service system of agricultural machinery and the entity such as the arable land, under the conditions of decentralized land management, the amount of work will be expanded through socialized services, and better economic benefits will be obtained, which will promote the cultivation of large and medium-sized farming operations. Direction development. The main development trends of China's farming machinery in the next few years are as follows:
With the improvement of tractor performance and the large-scale process of supporting agricultural tools, the application of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechatronic technologies in farming machinery has become inevitable.
After the main operation of the main crops mechanization basically meets the production needs, the farming machinery required for vegetables, flowers and cash crops, and the special requirements of the tillage machinery will become the focus of development.
Conservation tillage has the comprehensive function of protecting soil, soil conservation and fertility, and is an important measure for sustainable agricultural development. China plans to promote it in a large area in the â€œThree Northsâ€ within 10 years. No-till sowing, straw root treatment, topsoil processing and deep pine machinery will have great development in the next 10 years.
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