Mine environmental remediation technology application and capital operation

China's mine environment is not optimistic, mine environment restoration has a long way to go and the prospects are bright

On May 28th, Beijing’s sun was burning. Located in the west of China Aerospace Research Institute for Fiscal Science of the conference room, from the China Institute of Fiscal Science, Ministry of Land Consulting Research Center, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Finance Society, Minsheng Bank, as well as cloud Metallurgical Group, Shandong gold Group of guests, the discussion on mining environmental remediation technology in the capital are also in full swing.

The first speaker was Qian Yuhao, a consultant of the Consultation and Research Center of the Ministry of Land and Resources. He highlighted the basic situation and development of the mine ecological environment in China. He said that mining is a double-edged sword. It has made an irreplaceable and significant contribution to the progress of human society and material civilization, but it has produced very complicated and serious environmental problems.

As far as the mine environment is concerned, the existing problems can basically be divided into five categories: one is the destruction of land and landscape, the second is the destruction of vegetation and ecology, the third is the impact and destruction of the groundwater system, and the fourth is the initiation of various geology. Disasters, five are the most critical pollution problems. At present, the overall mine environment in China is not optimistic. Coal mines with serious environmental problems accounted for 19.54%, accounting for 48.53 percent higher than serious; severe non-ferrous metal mines accounted for 21.66%, accounting for 43.42 percent of the more serious; building materials and general nonmetal mines more serious than accounted for 20.85%.

China has a relatively late understanding of mine environmental governance and started late, but it has also issued a series of laws and regulations. In addition to the 1989 Environmental Protection Law, there are two directly related ones: one is the Mineral Resources Law of 1986, and the other is the Land Reclamation Regulations of 1989. In 2010, the State Council revised it again and put forward different requirements. The most obvious change is the emphasis on pollution.

Qian Yuhao introduced that after the establishment of the Ministry of Land and Resources, it has been continuously investing funds to repair the mine environment. From 2000 to 2006, a total of 2.4 billion yuan was invested and 797 mine environmental rehabilitation projects were organized. However, during this period, the overall content was mainly caused by geological disasters caused by mining, land reclamation, and the use of wastewater and waste. After 2006, the state increased environmental protection efforts, with an average annual investment of about 2 billion yuan, and increased year by year. By the end of 2014, the accumulated investment in mine environmental restoration funds reached 90.1 billion yuan, driving local finance and enterprises to raise 60.4 billion yuan. yuan. At the same time, the mine environmental management began to collect the deposit, and the accumulated return guarantee amounted to 30.7 billion yuan.

Qian Yuhao believes that the future development of the mine environment will be both long-term and promising. Nowadays, green development has formed a global upsurge. China's "13th Five-Year Plan" puts forward clear requirements for mine environmental problems, and is developing follow-up incentive policies; mine environmental restoration and mine construction are becoming institutionalized and standardized. He said: "In the future, the mine environment must be supported by technical support. It is a huge system engineering involving many disciplines. Only by co-constructing planning and exploring programs, according to local conditions and minerals, it is possible to achieve a beautiful blue sky and green water. aims."

Research on phytoremediation of contaminated land in mines, repair costs are expected to be greatly reduced

Why should mine environmental pollution be treated and repaired? What are the current soil remediation technologies? Chen Tongbin, director of the Environmental Rehabilitation Center of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, gave the answer from a professional perspective. He said that in the mine environment, it is usually concerned about the ecological environment damage visible to the mine, such as water pollution, vegetation damage, land subsidence, etc. In fact, there is a very important environmental problem in mining. Pollution of mine soil (land).

The soil pollution of farmland has aroused the concern of the society because it affects the sanitary quality and safety of agricultural products. However, the problem of land pollution in mines still has not received enough attention. Because these places are not as valuable as urban land, they do not grow crops, and they have nothing to do with eating and living. However, from the perspective of soil environment, the pollution of mine contaminated land is very large, and this hazard is slowly accumulated, concealed and irreversible. Therefore, mine environmental restoration and management are imperative.

In terms of mine environmental remediation technology, Chen Tongbin believes that although China has a certain accumulation, there are not many economically viable restoration techniques. Many practices such as mine land reclamation and regreening have ecological protection significance, but they are not considered enough to remove and control pollution.

Mine environmental restoration is a systematic project, and many of them require further improvement and research and development. For a large amount of mining contaminated land, the currently feasible methods are plant extraction, plant stabilization / plant fixation, physical isolation and so on. Through some special vegetation, the pollutants can be fixed in place, and the pollutants will not migrate to the groundwater or the surface runoff will migrate to the surface water. Plant extraction, that is, planting a special, highly enriched plant enriched with heavy metals, so that heavy metals are enriched in plants in order to achieve the purpose of extraction and removal. For example, valerian, the arsenic content can reach more than 1%, more than the nitrogen and phosphorus content in the plant, the arsenic concentration is 100,000 to 200,000 times larger than that of ordinary plants, and the alfalfa is burned. Arsenic ore. Based on this principle, a new field has been developed internationally, called plant mining. This can not only control contaminated soil, improve environmental quality, but also recover mineral resources and expand metal reserves. In addition, Chen Tongbin believes that the mining area and the affected area of ​​the mine should be defined. In the mining area, tailings may be treated by curing, passivation, heat treatment, etc.; but for a large amount of contaminated farmland, such as high temperature heat treatment, the soil organic matter is completely decomposed, the physical and chemical properties are completely changed, and the soil is lost. The original ecological function, the basic functions of the farmland will no longer exist. For mining affected areas, such an approach will not work.

“Of course, there are many other ideas at the scientific level, and the research is deepening, but there are not many successful applications in mine land restoration projects. We have been exploring the systematic solution of mine land with plant extraction, plant fixation and other technologies. pollution past 20 years, the company also carried out a number of cooperation, such as with Chihong, cloud Yunnan tin Group, etc., to carry out R & D demonstration plant to fix. now, we do a dozen different provinces and cities in A case study of farmland and mine soil environment restoration. After 3 to 5 years, plant extraction technology can clean contaminated soil, and now it is enough to invest 30,000 to 50,000 yuan in one mu of land. In the future, after scale expansion, The cost of repair is also expected to be greatly reduced. Overall, the practice has proved that this road is feasible, and has reached the level of large-scale engineering." Chen Tongbin is full of confidence in the road to plant mines to contaminate the land.

In addition to repairing, it is more important to no longer add new pollution. Wang Chaocai, deputy dean of the China Academy of Fiscal Science, said: "On the restoration of the mine environment, everyone needs to work together. But on the other hand, it should be noted that today's mines can no longer form new environmental damage. If it is only governance, not prevention I am afraid that mine repair will never be completed, and even more and more will be cured. It is important to manage the original polluted environment and, more importantly, prevent new damage."

Mine environmental restoration and management requires cooperation between government and social capital, and both have a natural basis for cooperation.

Since the technical prospects are bright, what is the state's financial support? Zhao Quanhou, director of the Financial Research Office of the China Academy of Fiscal Science, said that the state attaches great importance to environmental restoration, and related policies have been further systematicized in the process from scratch. . In terms of mine geological environment restoration and control, in 2015 alone, the central government invested 3.085 billion yuan in mine environmental management funds; using the central financial funds to accumulate 1,954 projects, with a total area of ​​over 800,000 hectares; 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) All the mine geological environment governance recovery deposit system has been introduced and implemented.

In terms of relevant tax incentives, the state has relevant regulations: First, environmental protection, energy conservation and water conservation projects, from the first year to the third year exempted from corporate income tax, the fourth to sixth year halved corporate income tax; second, in line with The energy-saving service company that implements the contract energy management project can enjoy the “three exemptions and three reductions” policy, as well as the corporate income tax treatment preferential policies with related assets; the third is 10% of the investment in environmental protection, energy conservation and water-saving special equipment. It can be credited from the taxable amount of the enterprise in the current year; the fourth is that the enterprise takes the resources stipulated in the Catalogue of Comprehensive Income Tax on Comprehensive Utilization of Resources as the main raw material, and produces the products that are not restricted and prohibited by the state and meet the relevant national and industry standards. The income is reduced to 90% of the total income; the fifth is the exemption of value-added tax on the use of waste, energy conservation and water saving, the value-added tax is refunded immediately, the value-added tax is refunded 50%, and the value-added tax is retired. Preferential policies.

Zhao Quanhou said that in terms of mine environmental restoration, cooperation between the government and social capital can be carried out, that is, the PPP model promoted by the Ministry of Finance. PPP mode, the abbreviation of Public-Private-Partnership, refers to the partnership between the government and private organizations, in order to provide certain public goods and services, based on the concession agreement, and form a partnership relationship with each other, and By signing the contract to clarify the rights and obligations of both parties, to ensure the smooth completion of the cooperation, and ultimately to achieve more favorable results than the expected separate actions. In general, the area of ​​government cooperation with social capital is in the public domain, that is, projects in these areas have basically no cash flow, or cash flow is small, and it is difficult to cover the return on investment of the entire project.

In this case, how does the government and social capital work together? The Ministry of Finance gives the answer – there are three modes of government cooperation with social capital:

The first, there is no cash flow model. If there is no cash flow, it is necessary to use the government's full payment model to carry out government and social capital cooperation. Because of government-paid projects such as roads, the government needs to pay for road construction, operation and maintenance, etc. throughout the life cycle. Through the introduction of social capital, the government's original one-time investment expenditure can be turned into recurrent expenditure, and the one-off investment can be compensated by the “small stream” of fiscal expenditure in the whole life cycle of the project. Another benefit of using PPP for this non-cash-flowing public welfare project is the ability to increase the efficiency and cost savings of public goods.

Second, the gap subsidy payment model. For example, some bridges are charged, but they do not necessarily fully cover the cost of building a bridge. If the government receives the bridge fee at a price that covers the return on the bridge investment, it may artificially block passenger and freight. Therefore, pricing charges often only recover part of the cash flow, which is not enough to fully compensate for social capital investment. Therefore, the government will pass some necessary subsidy payment models, so that the price of the bridge is reasonable, the people can afford it, and the social capital has a profit. With PPP, the governance of the bridge service itself is more efficient, and it also allows the government to save investment in building bridges.

Third, the mode of user payment. For example, in the case of local highways with dense passenger and cargo traffic, in many cases, after the government has priced, the user can only pay a reasonable return on social capital investment.

There is no cash flow in the mine environmental restoration project. The government faces problems such as low fiscal revenue, high expenditure pressure, and insufficient funds in the process of repairing the mine environment. This requires the introduction of social capital. “The mine environment is repaired, the enterprise has part of the responsibility, and the government also has some responsibility. This is a natural basis for the cooperation between the government and social capital. This requires the capital of both parties to be funded. The government has special funds for mine recovery, and the enterprise has a guarantee for environmental recovery. After the launch of the two, it is a kind of equity investment cooperation, and then attract other social capital, it is easy to form a fund-based model. After the formation of the fund-based model, it can also be linked with the actual mine repair PPP project. Through market-oriented management, the fund can strengthen the support of fund investors for specific PPP projects. Therefore, it can form a diversified investment in which the upper layer is the fund-based model and the lower layer is the project cooperation model. The fund-based approach can be carried out separately or through multiple channels. These are all good ways." Zhao Quanhou said.

In addition, Zhao Quanhou also introduced that mine environmental restoration is easy to form some kind of future assets. As a realistic treatment of capitalization, discounting future assets is also a funded design method. Future assets can also be used as current equity funds to strengthen the equity capital of mine rehabilitation projects.

Financial institutions have a rational understanding of mine environmental restoration projects, and can attract a variety of financing models to attract social funds.

Although the prospects are bright and the ways of cooperation are diverse, it is not easy to recover the social funds from the restoration of the mine environment. Wang Fengquan, assistant general manager of Minsheng Bank's minerals department customer management center, said that the current status of mine environmental restoration is: First, China's ecological requirements for mines are relatively high, mining companies have more investment in environmental protection and financial pressure; secondly, from the enterprises themselves At present, based on the current situation of the entire industry, the profitability of enterprises is relatively poor. Under this circumstance, it is more important for mining enterprises to take more funds to invest in mine environmental restoration projects. The social benefits of the mine environmental restoration project itself are more prominent, and the economic benefits are not very obvious.

Under this circumstance, according to the survey of many mine financing projects in the country, financial institutions have only slightly financed an environmental restoration project. The main reason is that the project itself has no economic benefits, and the cash flow of repayment is not guaranteed. Second, it is passive for the enterprise itself, and it can save the province. Therefore, financial institutions finance the mining enterprises. In fact, they still focus on the judgment of the entire project, such as environmental assessment, environmental assessment, and environmental and environmental conservation programs. Large projects are included for financing considerations.

According to the speeches of several guests and the current status of mining companies, Wang Fengquan also proposed several financing models:

The first mode, by becoming passive and active, allows enterprises to actively invest more in projects. It is recommended that the state introduce policies that allow private mines to be pledged to make loans and increase the liquidity of corporate funds. Financial institutions can provide enterprises with liquidity support services in this regard.

In the second mode, some tourism projects can be built, or the farmers can be moved back to engage in urbanization construction, shantytown renovation, and other projects that are expected to benefit in the future. The government participates in the guidance, the enterprise initiates, and guides financial institutions and social funds.

In the third mode, some projects may have some funds for the project. For projects that meet the appropriation target, like the export tax rebate policy, a financial allocation pledge loan similar to the export tax rebate pledge loan is established. Financial institutions finance enterprises in accordance with the funding conditions and reduce the pressure on corporate cash flow expenditures.

In the fourth mode, try to establish a margin account. Funds such as the Provident Fund that establish an environmental restoration fund use the fund to leverage leverage to guide funds to entrust loans or investments in corporate environmental rehabilitation projects.

The fifth mode is to extend upstream, to provide financial support for the mine environmental restoration project technology research and development, equipment manufacturing enterprises.

"Ten Shi" was finally introduced in the long-awaited call, which is a major positive for the restoration and treatment of the mine environment. Although there are many problems in the environmental restoration and management of mines, such as technology and capital, for the government and enterprises, it is undeniable that with the joint efforts of the government, enterprises, technicians and even financial institutions, we In the end, it will bring "green mountains and green water + Jinshan Yinshan" to each mine.

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